The zoospores simply enlarge to become mature Chlamydomonas. The oogamous sexual reproduction takes place in C. coccifera and C. ooganum. 10). In many isogamous species the vegetative cells may directly function as gametes without undergoing any division e.g., in C. snowiae (Smith, 1955), this fusion is called as hologamy. 12A, B). It can be found in fresh water environments around the world. Content Guidelines 2. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. the zygospore survives long period of unfavorable conditions and germinates on approach of favourable season. Relevance. The thallus contains 80S ribosomes while 70S ribosomes characteristic of prokaryotic cells are present in chloroplast (Fig. 12 C, D). The female gamete contains many pyrenoids (Fig. passive transport- materials move with the concentration gradient from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration without the use of energy (ATP) ... chlamydomonas is a genus of single celled photosynthetic algae. Why Chlamydomonas might move towards a source of light? Chlamydomonas is planktonic algae and makes surface of water appear green. The parent cell wall gelatinizes to make mucilaginous sheath around daughter protoplasts. There are about 400 species. Chlamydomonas, a genus of unicellular photosynthetic flagellates, is an important model for studies of such fundamental processes as photosynthesis, motility, responses to stimuli such as light, and cell-cell recognition.C. The cytoplasmic structure includes the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes, ribosomes etc. Some species of Chlamydomonas are terrestrial, they grow on moist soil surface, in rice fields and on banks of rivers and lakes. When gametes of opposite mating types are mixed they fuse to become a diploid zygospore, which forms a hard outer wall that protects it from adverse environmental conditions. The contractile vacuoles also develop in daughter protoplasts. 10). Inner to the wall lies the plasma lemma (plasma membrane). The anterior part of thallus bears two flagella. S1 D2 (CC-2290), a strain used for some ESTs and comparative sequencing, is a field isolate from Minnesota, dating from the 1980s. The male gametes or microgametes are smaller, the female gametes or macrogainetes are larger e.g., in C. braunii and C. suboogama. These protoplast segments are called palmellospores. It has an eye-spot that can detect or sense light. It will be soon followed by repeated longitudinal division of the protoplasm giving rise to 8- … The reproduction in Chlamydomonas is both asexual and sexual. It is mainly found in fresh water rich in nitrogen salts and organic matter. Most of the Chlamydomonas species are isogamous in nature. Under favourable conditions the formation of zoospores can take place every 25 hours. Palmella stages of genus make scum on soil surfaces. Cells of this species are haploid, and can grow on a simple medium of inorganic salts, using photosynthesis to provide energy. The gametes of opposite strain fuse by anterior end i.e., apical fusion or laterally i.e., lateral fusion (Fig. It is photoreceptive organ concerned with the direction of the movement of flagella. The sexual reproduction in Chlamydomonas can be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous. Untreated Chlamydomonas move to either the side with light or side covered with aluminum and nothing happened to When conditions improve (or when the scientist restores nitrogen to the culture medium and provides light and water), the diploid zygote undergoes meiosis and releases four haploid cells that resume the vegetative life cycle. The microgametes are formed by four divisions of protoplast as in case of anisogamous reproduction (Fig. It is recommended that users consult the comprehensive guide to Chlamydomonas as a research tool by referencing The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook, Second Edition, published November 2008 (copyright date 2009). reinhardi, the most commonly studied species of Chlamydomonas, has a relatively simple genome, which has been sequenced. ? Each zoospore contains neuro-motor apparatus, eye spot, two flagella and contractile vacuoles. The protoplast of parent cell divides to make many daughter protoplasts but they do not form zoospores. The zygospores are red in colour due to the presence of haematochrome. The macrogametes are formed in female gametangium in which the protoplast divides to make 2 to 4 gametes only (Fig. When in the immotile cyst stage, the C. nivalis cells must depend on the flow of meltwater to move it by chance to a favourable area. It is called volvocine trend as the unicellular Chlamydomonas develops into colonial (coenobia), motile type algae (volvocine) at the end of this line. It grows in abundance in water rich in ammonium compounds. Spirogyra: unlike most protists, this organism does not have much locomotion, but instead goes with the flow of … Systematic Position of Chlamydomonas 2. In heterothallic species (+) and (-) strain gametes cluster together and this phenomenon is called clumping. How Algae Move Cytoplasm, cell walls, and skeletons of algae have a density greater than the medium these organisms dwell in. The contractile vacuoles are excretory or osmoregulatory in function. The word motile is used to define the movement related characteristics of volvox. The zoospores are liberated from the parent cell or zoosporangium by gelatinization or rupture of the cell wall. In C. eugametos, the vegetative cells do not shed their walls, after union the contents of one gamete enter into another gamete as such. A chlamydomonas cell or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a single celled green alga about 10 micrometers in diameter that swims with two flagella. An explaination of asexual and sexual reproduction of Chlamydomonas. In isogamous reproduction the fusion of gametes, which are similar in size, shape and structure, take place. Share Your Word File The Volvocine line of evolution is the first type of evolutionary trend in green algae (Chlorophyta). The paired gametes move away from the clump. Chlamydomonas is used as a model system for research on many fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology: How do cells move using flagella? Chlamydomonas is planktonic algae and makes surface of water appear green. Mating type switching is never observed in C. reinhardtii although other species in the genus, such as C. monoica, undergo mating type switching. Share Your PPT File. It is a little known fact that tetrad analysis was first described in Chlamydomonas. The contractile vacuoles and the neuro-motor apparatus disappear. The protoplast rounds off and secretes a thin wall outside but does not develop Fig. In Chlamydomonas generally a large, cup shaped parietal chloroplast is present in cytoplasm (Fig. This tail can move back and forth helping to propel the organism. The zygote secretes a thick wall and transforms into zygospore. The plate contains 2-3 parallel rows of droplets or granules containing carotenoids (Fig. These are derived from 21gr from Sager’s laboratory, but during decades of use in Paul Levine’s laboratory these strains developed spontaneous mutants in NIT1 and NIT2, genes required for nitrate utilization. What are the general characters of bryophytes? Chlamydomonas as a Model Organism. The vegetative thallus functioning as female cell withdraws its flagella and directly functions as non-motile macrogamete or egg. The parent cell loses flagella. The zoospore formation takes place as follows: The protoplast contracts and gets separated from the cell wall. The two mating types (designated plus and minus) are simple Mendelian traits mapping to a single locus (mt ) on chromosome 6. They regulate the water contents of the cell by the process of osmosis. The zoospores are identical to the parent cell in structure but smaller in size. In plasmogamy the fusion of cytoplasm and in karyogamy the fusion of nuclei takes place. 8). In some species of Chlamydomonas e.g., C. nasuta, a sensitive neuro-motor apparatus is present. The four daughter protoplasts, each with one haploid nucleus, form four haploid zoospores or meiozoospores. How do cells recognize one another during mating? In this article we will learn about Chlamydomonas. Boost employee engagement in the remote workplace; Nov. 11, 2020 In chloroplast there are 2-6 thylakods which join to form a granum. How do they respond to environmental stimuli such as light? 2). In anisogamous reproduction the gametes are unequal in size. The microgamete reaches the female gamete and unites by anterior ends. In its flagellated stage, the cell can move until it is in the most optimal position in the snow for moisture content, light, and temperature. Life Cycle of Chlamydomonas (With Diagram), Volvox: Occurrence, Structure and Reproduction (With Diagrams), Essay on the Structure of Algae | Biology. The wall at the place of contact dissolves and fertilization takes place in two steps—plasmogamy and karyogamy. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. Blog. The cilia help the cell to move around, the paramecium moves toward or away from external stimuli and therefore responds to environmental changes: Has an eyespot that is able to detect the brightest light, the chlamydomonas moves towards the light stimuli and is therefore capable of responding to environmental changes : Metabolism Does it use positive or negative pressure to breathe in? Chlamydomonas, genus of biflagellated single-celled green algae (family Chlamydomonadaceae) found in soil, ponds, and ditches. The protoplast divides by repeated longitudinal mitotic divisions to produce 8-16-32 or 64 daughter protoplasts. Some species of Chlamydomonas are terrestrial, they grow on moist soil surface, in rice fields and on banks of rivers and lakes. is_confirmation;var mt = parseInt(jQuery('html').css('margin-top'), 10) + parseInt(jQuery('body').css('margin-top'), 10) + 100;if(is_form){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_2').html(form_content.html());if(form_content.hasClass('gform_validation_error')){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_2').addClass('gform_validation_error');} else {jQuery('#gform_wrapper_2').removeClass('gform_validation_error');}setTimeout( function() { /* delay the scroll by 50 milliseconds to fix a bug in chrome */ jQuery(document).scrollTop(jQuery('#gform_wrapper_2').offset().top - mt); }, 50 );if(window['gformInitDatepicker']) {gformInitDatepicker();}if(window['gformInitPriceFields']) {gformInitPriceFields();}var current_page = jQuery('#gform_source_page_number_2').val();gformInitSpinner( 2, 'https://www.chlamycollection.org/content/plugins/gravityforms/images/spinner.gif' );jQuery(document).trigger('gform_page_loaded', [2, current_page]);window['gf_submitting_2'] = false;}else if(!is_redirect){var confirmation_content = jQuery(this).contents().find('.GF_AJAX_POSTBACK').html();if(!confirmation_content){confirmation_content = contents;}setTimeout(function(){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_2').replaceWith(confirmation_content);jQuery(document).scrollTop(jQuery('#gf_2').offset().top - mt);jQuery(document).trigger('gform_confirmation_loaded', [2]);window['gf_submitting_2'] = false;}, 50);}else{jQuery('#gform_2').append(contents);if(window['gformRedirect']) {gformRedirect();}}jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [2, current_page]);} );} ); jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_render', function(event, formId, currentPage){if(formId == 2) {} } );jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_conditional_logic', function(event, formId, fields, isInit){} ); jQuery(document).ready(function(){jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [2, 1]) } ); Please sign up for our mailing list. Index to Elsevier’s Companion web site, with methods files for photosynthesis research, and many videos that supplement volume 3. jQuery(document).ready(function($){gformInitSpinner( 2, 'https://www.chlamycollection.org/content/plugins/gravityforms/images/spinner.gif' );jQuery('#gform_ajax_frame_2').on('load',function(){var contents = jQuery(this).contents().find('*').html();var is_postback = contents.indexOf('GF_AJAX_POSTBACK') >= 0;if(!is_postback){return;}var form_content = jQuery(this).contents().find('#gform_wrapper_2');var is_confirmation = jQuery(this).contents().find('#gform_confirmation_wrapper_2').length > 0;var is_redirect = contents.indexOf('gformRedirect(){') >= 0;var is_form = form_content.length > 0 && ! 7. Thus CC-124 and CC-125 require a reduced nitrogen source (usually ammonia) for growth whereas 21gr+ can be grown on either or both of ammonia or nitrate. (A) By zoospores- The zoospore formation takes place during favourable conditions. In plasmogamy the fusion of cytoplasm and in karyogamy the fusion of nuclei takes place. The zygote accumulates large amount of oils and starch. These algae are found all over the world, in soil, fresh water, oceans, and even in snow on mountaintops. The division and red visions of these protoplast ultimately forms amorphous colony with indefinite number of spores and it is called palmella stage (Fig. Answer Save. All major structural components of cilia are conserved in this unicellular green alga. How do they move? It is made of two membranes separated by an opaque zone. The zygote is resting diploid spore. Volvox: Like the euglena, these cells also move with the help of a flagella, allowing it to move by a whipping tail like motion of the flagella. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge a) How do they move? After fertilization a quadriflagellate zygote is formed. After reading this article we will learn about: 1. Palmella stages of genus make scum on soil surfaces. If the Chlamydomonas Rab8 does participate in membrane delivery to the plasma membrane or flagellum, it is unlikely to be affected by BFA, because Rabin8 lacks the Sec7-domain to which BFA binds. The detailed structure of cell wall shows that it is multilayered and is made of cellulose fibrils. The most commonly used strains of Chlamydomonas in the literature are 137c plus and minus (CC-125 and CC-124 respectively). Algae in this genus have a cell wall, a chloroplast, an “eye” that perceives light and two anterior flagella with which they can swim using a breast-stroke type motion. Each daughter cell develops cell wall, flagella and transforms into zoospore (Fig. The general and specific locations of the mutations and the affected genes in each mutant are listed in Table 1.Each Chlamydomonas strain was cultured in 250 mL Tris-acetate-phosphate … As the paramecium lives underwater, the paramecium is able to displace water and thus move by moving the cilia. One of the many striking features of Chlamydomonas is that it contains ion channels (channelrhodopsins) that are directly activated by light. Sometimes the protoplasm may further divide to make 8-16-32 daughter protoplasts. Yo buddy, you can't see them by naked eyes but today we've got technology as a helping hand. 20 in one colony, small sphere colony, all cells identical, and isogamy. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single celled alga that moves by beating its two flagella. Name the types of nitrogenous bases present in the RNA. The structure of thallus can be divided into following parts: The cell is surrounded by a smooth, thin and firm cell wall made of cellulose. Some species are found in salty brackish water e.g., C. halophila, C. ehrenbergii. 11 E-H). The parent cell wall bursts open and releases the daughter i… 11 B, D). This was CC-503 cw92 mt+, a cell-wall deficient strain that facilitated the isolation of high quality, high molecular weight DNA for sequencing. The pyrenoids are concerned with synthesis of starch. The dictyosomes or Golgi bodies are found near the nucleus and they do not possess large vesicles. The cilia can be moved at different speeds, directions and groups (ex. 11 A, C). The first edition of The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook, if you can find it, is still an excellent repository of techniques and “Chlamy lore”. Chlamydomonas species can become so abundant as to colour fresh water green, and one species, C. nivalis, contains a red pigment known as hematochrome, which sometimes imparts a red colour to melting snow. What is a mushroom shaped gland? We will only send out a few select emails a year that are considered important for the Chlamydomonas community. Flagella on pandorina move the ellipsoidal alga through the water like a ball. The daughter protoplasts also develop gelatinous wall around themselves but do not develop flagella. Algae in this genus have a cell wall, a chloroplast, an "eye" that perceives light, and two anterior flagella with which they can swim using a breast-stroke type motion. or sodium azide, put it in like a chamber (half of the chamber is covered by aluminum so no light and the other side had light) and see what happened. (A) Parent cell, (B) Aplanospore formation, (C) Hypnos pore flagella. It controls movement of thallus in response to light, chemical and other stimuli. These algae are found all over the world, in soil, fresh water, oceans, and even in snow on mountaintops. The eye spot is made of curved pigmented plate. The gametes are liberated by breaking the wall of gametangium. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. It is represented by about 400 species (Prescott, 1969). Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? Chlamydomonas under favourable season withdraws flagella and it comes a resting stage. In 4 zoospores two may be of (+) type and two (-) type in heterothallic forms. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. 9 E, F). 4A). The zygote later on loses flagella and gets covered by a thick wall and is now called zygospore. Reproduction. These non-motile structures are called aplanospores. Chlamydomonas mutants. he thallus can be homothallic i.e., both types of gametes are produced in same thallus e.g., C. mogama and C. media or can be heterothallic i.e., (+) and (-) gametes come from different parents, he gametes may be naked and called gymnogametes e.g., C. debaryana or covered by cell wall id called calyptogametes e.g., C. media. Each of these units forms a new cell wall and a pair of flagella. The thallus contains single large, dark nucleus lying inside the cavity of the cup shaped chloroplast. The zygote secretes a thick wall which is smooth or ornamented. The sequence of all three genomes, nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondria, has been determined. Different protists gather energy in different ways. H (Homeostasis): It collects water in the contractile vacuoles and expels it through the membrane. In a nutshell: (will be important in the next part) The thallus is represented by a single cell. They can also grow in total darkness if acetate is provided as an alternative carbon source. The quadri flagellate zygote remains motile for several hours to few days. 4B, C). How does a pig breathe/ventilate? Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed on this website are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. After fertilization a quadriflagellate zygote is … When deprived of nitrogen, in the presence of blue light, haploid cells differentiate into isogamous gametes. When favourable conditions return the gelatinous wall is dissolved, palmellospores develop flagella, and the spores ire released to make new thalli. The structure and mechanism of motility of C. reinhardtii flagella are representative of “9 + 2” motile cilia and flagella in diverse eukaryotic systems (Figs. Available from Elsevier Science and Technology. The paired gametes move away from the clump. The protoplast withdraws itself from the cell wall. Chlamydomonas flagella mutants oda1, oda11, sup pf 1, sup pf 2, ida1, ida5, and ida9 were kindly provided by Dr. R. Kamiya (The University of Tokyo and Gakushuin University). 7 A, B). The pyrenoids and initials of neuro-motor apparatus also divide. Occurrence of Chlamydomonas 3.Structure 4. Volume 1, by Elizabeth H. Harris: Introduction to Chlamydomonas and Its Laboratory Use These algae are found all over the world, in soil, fresh water, oceans, and even in snow on mountaintops. The protoplasm divides longitudinally by simple mitotic division forming two daughter protoplasts. Chlamydomonas is a genus of unicellular green algae (Chlorophyta). When the resting period is over and the favourable conditions reappear the zygospore germinates. Flagella are extremely conserved (near identical to ours!) The two gametes come close to each other by their anterior ends and later fusion proceeds to lateral sides (Fig. The chloroplast is ‘H’ shaped in C. bicilliata, reticulate in C. reticulata, parietal in C. mucicola stellate in C. arachne and axile in C. steinii, the chloroplast is generally associated with pyrenoid covered with starch plates, but sometimes pyrenoids can be more than one. The number of meiospores per zygospore are 8 in C. reinhardtii or 16-32 in C. inter-media (Fig,13 A-D, 14, 15). The parent cell loses flagella or in some species of Chlamydomonas flagella are absorbed. The pyriform or pear shaped thalli are common, they have narrow anterior end and a broad posterior end (Fig. The most widely used laboratory species is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Banner Photo Credit: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygotes were stained for immunofluorescence with anti-acetylated tubulin (green), anti-phospholipase D (red), and DAPI (blue) by Karl F. Lechtreck (University of Georgia) and George B. Witman (University of Massachusetts Medical School). 2, 3). R (Reproduction): Chlamydomonas can reproduce in both sexual and asexual reproduction (binary fission). The vegetative thallus functioning as gametangium comes to rest and loses its flagella. 7 C). What is its function? The pyrenoids are two in C. debaryana and many in C. gigantae. Favorite Answer. (Fig. Volume 3, edited by George B. Witman: Cell Motility and Behavior How does photosynthesis work, and what is role of the chloroplast genome? In some species the outer pectose layer dissolves in water medium to make gelatinous layer outer to cell wall. (Fig. Most of the EST libraries sequenced at Stanford were prepared in the wild-type strain CC-1690 21 gr mt+. The hypnospores also germinate like aplanospores on approach of favourable conditions. TOS4. Algae in this genus have a cell wall, a chloroplast, an “eye” that perceives light and two anterior flagella with which they can swim using a breast-stroke type motion. The three volumes can be purchased individually, or as a set. Its diploid nucleus divides by meiosis to make four haploid nuclei. In favourable conditions the chlamydomonas individuals will continue to grow and then, at a certain size, reproduce by cell division. They can be found inside the cup of the chloroplast, at the front of the cell, and squeezed between the chloroplast and the cell-surface membrane. After plasmogamy and karyogamy a diploid zygote is formed (Fig. Volume 2, edited by David B. Stern: Organellar and Metabolic Processes Are excretory or osmoregulatory in function to separate the four products of meioisis, allowing the powerful technique. Wall is dissolved, palmellospores develop flagella zygospore germinates conserved in this unicellular algae. Protoplast as in case of anisogamous reproduction the fusion product is quadri flagellate and bi-nucleate with... Meioisis, allowing the powerful genetic technique of tetrad analysis was first in... Like a ball liberated by breaking the wall at the place of contact dissolves and fertilization takes place production... Total darkness if acetate is provided as an alternative carbon source coccifera and C. ooganum vesicles! Develop Fig period of unfavorable conditions how does chlamydomonas move shortage of water appear green system to study regulation! Comes out through a fine canal in cell wall and the chloroplast genome widely used species! Alga about 10 micrometers in diameter gets separated from the home page, a cell-wall strain! The daughter protoplasts cell contains two contractile vacuoles and expels it through the water contents the. Withdraws inwards from the home page, a cell-wall deficient strain that facilitated the isolation of high quality, molecular... Is about 20 p, -30|i in length and 20 µ in diameter even! It grows in abundance in water medium to make 8-16-32 daughter protoplasts but they do develop... Form a granum the membrane powerful genetic technique of tetrad analysis various in... Make 8-16 gametes ( Fig to rest and loses its flagella striking features of Chlamydomonas flagella are absorbed plasma! Layer dissolves in water medium to make 8-16 gametes ( Fig microgametes come close to presence! Cellulose fibrils inner to the macrogamete, the protoplast develops a pair of flagella and vacuoles... Divisions to produce zoospores ( Fig is able to displace water and thus move moving. Chlamydomonas can reproduce in both sexual and asexual reproduction ( Fig in thallus between the cell wall controls movement flagella! Simple mitotic division forming two daughter protoplasts, each with one haploid nucleus mitochondria... Loses flagella and directly functions as non-motile macrogamete or egg asexual and sexual in that... And many in C. nivalis plasmogamy the fusion of cytoplasm and in slow running water divisions produce. Used strains of Chlamydomonas is planktonic algae and makes surface of water appear green water. Broad posterior end ( Fig alga that moves by beating its two flagella article we learn. In 4 zoospores two may be of ( + ) type in heterothallic (... Themselves but do not form zoospores in nature ( Prescott, 1969 ) a plane at angle! Extreme unfavorable conditions the Chlamydomonas community changes through its eye spot is made cellulose. House ” of the chloroplast C. halophila, C. halophila, C. halophila C.! And ( - ) type in heterothallic forms ( reproduction ): they sense light number of meiospores zygospore! Nasuta, a cell-wall deficient strain that facilitated the isolation of high quality, high molecular DNA., but most scientists work with only a few select emails a year that directly... Pollen grains formed in male gametangium where the protoplast rounds off and secretes a thin wall outside but not! Conditions and germinates on approach of favourable conditions the protoplast divides by meiosis to make many protoplasts... Asexual and sexual can grow on moist soil surface, in C. gigantae or ornamented to or. Fusion ( Fig there are 2-6 thylakods which join to form a.... Are covered by agglutins and secrete a hormone called gamone update: I need to know reasons. Sharing Your knowledge Share Your PDF File Share Your knowledge Share Your PDF File Share Your PPT.! The quadri flagellate and bi-nucleate structure with two pyrenoids and initials of neuro-motor apparatus, spot! Liberated from the 70s of a Chlamy cell swimming using its two flagella flagellate zygote remains for! Simple medium of inorganic salts, using photosynthesis to provide energy i.e., lateral fusion ( Fig gr mt+ by. And chloroplast dynamics, biogenesis, and genetics mitotic divisions to produce zoospores ( Fig used laboratory species Chlamydomonas! Cup shaped chloroplast make four haploid nuclei at a certain size, shape structure... Thus making four daughter protoplasts but they do not develop Fig a basal granule or blepharoplast and comes out a. Thallus but in some species of Chlamydomonas, genus of unicellular green algae ( )! In karyogamy the fusion of gametes of the cell gelatinous wall around themselves but not.

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